The Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 was basically a military conflict between India and Pakistan. During the course of the war, Indian and Pakistani forces clashed on the eastern and western fronts. However there was a background that leads to this war of 1971. The Indo-Pakistani conflict was sparked by the Liberation War of Bangladesh, a clash between the dominant West Pakistanis and the majority East Pakistanis.
In the election of 1970, the East Pakistani Awami League won 167 of 169 seats in East Pakistan and secured a majority out of the 313 seats in the Parliament of Pakistan.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Awami League leader claimed the right to form the government. But Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, did not accepted Mujibur as Prime Minister of Paksitan. Military was called to intervene by then President Yahya Khan to suppress any type of the rebel in East Pakistan. The conflict began, with mass arrests of the dissidents and also several attempts were made to disarm the East Pakistan. After several days of non-cooperation movements and strikes, the Pakistani military cracked down on Dhaka on a sudden night, many members of the Awami league fled into exile and Mujibur was arrested and taken to West Pakistan. However on March 27th, 1971, Bangladesh was declared independent.
The primary reason for the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 was mainly due to the liberation war in Bangladesh. The Pakistan army randomly killed many of the Bengali population of East Pakistan, specially aimed at the minority of the Hindu residents, which created a terror among the Hindu people who used to stay in East Pakistan and eventually around 10 million people left East Pakistan and taking shelter in the neighboring Indian states. The Indie- East Pakistan border was opened in order to allow the refugees take a safe shelter in India. The governments of Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Tripura set up refugee camps to help the refugees, along the border. The mass killing of the Hindu’s make people afraid.
The Indian government under the leadership of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi gave here full support to the people of East Pakistan. They took armed action against the Pakistan to put a stop the random genocide and that formally marked the beginning of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971. The west Pakistanis became even more atrocious. But the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 came to an end when the “Instrument of Surrender” was signed by the Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora and the war stopped. At the end of the war almost half of the population of Pakistan and a major portion of the Pakistani army were imprisoned. In the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, although India defeated Pakistan but showed restrained reaction.
However when it was time to celebrate for India the amazing triumph of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971, Pakistan was not in a position to accept this defeat or in that case the surrender. Pakistan lost a lot of its populace and the economy also suffered a lot. General Yahya Khan was unable to control the massacre and crisis that Pakistan was going through, he surrendered all his power to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who became the president Chief Martial Law Administrator.