Tests of special relativity are confined within flat space time. This directly refers to complete phenomenon where important influence of gravitation is not present. here, the influence of gravitation lies under the general relativity theory and tests are considered under this theory.
A series of tests are available for special relativity which is accepted as a physical theory. This theory plays the basic role in describing all physical phenomenons. But, this happens only when gravitation is not considered as significant under tests. A number of experiments have been played already and still going on of this theory. These tests play important part in justification and development of this special relativity theory. It is the strength of this theory that it can predict higher level of outcome even with a diverse range of experiments. This is also known as its unique ability.
Many of these tests or experiments are done in present day environment also and they are performed repeatedly. Steadily increased precision can be acquired with these tests or experiments and they are still being conducted for specific purposes. But, this does not mean that there is no flaw of these tests or experiments. It has been seen that with the Planck scale and in the neutrino sector, the special relativity theory shows low level of performance and results with less accuracy. Here, the deviations of the predictions made by these tests are not ruled by the respective theory. Whatever the outcome comes, the collections of these tests of special relativity and their credit goes to scientists like Zhang, Mattingly, Jakob Laub, Clifford Will and Roberts/Schleif.
The tests or experiments can be divided in first-order tests and second-order tests. First-order experiments are formed long before in the year 1810, with the work of Francois Arago. Here, a series of tests are conducted here which are known as optical experiments. But, the result of this test was negative whereas, the test should have got positive outcome. But, in 1818, Augustin Fresnel has introduced an explanation which was first called “dragging coefficient”. Later in 1851, in 1892, in 1895 first-order tests are tested negative or null.
The second-order tests are started with the Michelson–Morley experiment (1881, 1887) where it is conducted positive results and experiments. Here, two rays of light, traveling in different directions ends with merging with each other and which is expected displacement with their ends. But, the result went negative again. Experiments in the year 1905, in 1908 all went negative again. Several test theories and modern tests have been conducted so far. The outcome in Lorentz violation experiments got positive outcome and later many outcome has increased the importance of the tests of special relativity testing the speed of light.